Pengaruh Volume Solvent dan Berat Biji Alpukat (Persea Americana Mill) Terhadap Yield dan Karakteristik Hasil Ekstraksi

Ary Rahmady Pratama, Eko Ariyanto, Mardwita Mardwita

Abstract


Biji buah alpukat (Persea americana) merupakan sumber limbah biomassa yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber energi alternatif. Pada bagian biji alpukat mengandung selulosa, hemiselulosa, lignin, lipid, protein. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisa pengaruh berat biji alpukat dan solvent n-heksana terhadap persentase yield minyak biji alpukat dan mengetahui karakteristik persentase FFA, kadar air, impurities, bilangan iodine, bilangan peroksida dan bilangan saponifikasi minyak dari biji alpukat yang dihasilkan dari proses ekstraksi. Metode penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengestraksi biji alpukat menggunakan soklet ekstraksi dan solvent n-heksana dengan temperatur 70 °C, tekanan 1 atm dan waktu 240, 360, 480 menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukan variabel berat biji alpukat, volume pelarut dan lamanya waktu ekstraksi mempengaruhi peningkatan jumlah minyak biji alpukat yang dihasilkan. Dari penelitian yang dilakukan yield tertinggi dihasilkan dari ekstraksi biji alpukat adalah sebesar 30,15 % pada variabel massa biji 60 gram, waktu ekstraksi 480 menit dan volume pelarut 300 ml. Hasil analisa kualitas minyak biji alpukat terhadap persentase FFA, kadar air, impurities, bilangan iodine, bilangan peroksida dan bilangan saponifikasi telah memenuhi standar SNI. Namun pada analisa impurities pada proses ekstraksi biji alpukat 60 gram dengan volume n-heksana 300 ml melebihi standar SNI. Hasil uji Gas Chromatography menunjukkan bahwa minyak biji alpukat mengandung senyawa asam lemak dan konsentrasi oleic acid adalah yang tertinggi dibandingkan unsur kimia yang lain.

Avocado seeds (Persea americana) are biomass waste that can be used as an alternative source of energy. Avocado seeds contain cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, lipids, and protein. This research studied the effects of avocado seed weight and n-hexane solvent on the percentage of avocado seed oil yield and determined the characteristics of the FFA percentage, water content, impurities, numbers of iodine, peroxide and oil saponification of obtained from the extraction process. Avocado seeds were extracted using an extraction sox and n-hexane solvent at 70 °C, 1 atm and time 240, 360, 480 minutes. The results showed that avocado seed weight, solvent volume and extraction time affected the amount of avocado seed oil yield. The highest yield was 30.15% obtained from seed mass of 60 grams with 480 minute extraction time and 300 ml solvent. The results also showed that the quality of avocado seed oil in relation to FFA percentage, moisture content, impurities, iodine number, peroxide number and saponification number have fulfilled the SNI standards. However, the analysis of impurities in the extraction process of 60 grams of avocado seeds with a volume 300 ml of n-hexanes exceeds the SNI standard. The Gas Chromatography test showed that avocado seed oil contained fatty acid compounds with highest concentration of oleic acid among other chemical elements.


Keywords


avocado; extraction; n-hexane

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33795/jtkl.v5i2.217

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Copyright (c) 2021 Ary Rahmady Pratama, Eko Ariyanto, Mardwita Mardwita

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.