Pengaruh Gelombang Ultrasonik pada Pembuatan Sabun Transparan dari Minyak Kelapa (Cocos nucifera) dan Minyak Ayam (Gallus domesticus)

Aman Santoso, Rohman Fantusi, Siti Marfu’ah, Sumari Sumari

Abstract


Sabun transparan dapat dibuat dari minyak nabati dengan basa alkali melalui reaksi saponifikasi dengan penambahan transparent agent. Perbedaan karakter bahan dari minyak kelapa (Cocos nucifera) dan minyak ayam (Gallus domesticus) berpotensi menghasilkan sabun transparan yang unik. Kavitasi gelombang ultrasonik menghomogenkan campuran dan mempercepat laju reaksi. Tujuan penelitian ini membuat sabun transparan dari minyak kelapa dan minyak ayam serta membandingkan sabun yang dihasilkan menggunakan gelombang ultrasonik dan dengan sabun dari metode pemanasan. Penelitian eksperimental dilakukan dengan tahapan preparasi dan karakterisasi minyak kelapa dan minyak ayam, dilanjutkan dengan saponifikasi dengan disertai gelombang ultrasonik. Karakterisasi sabun transparan hasil sintesis menunjukkan bahwa sabun yang terbuat dari minyak kelapa lebih transparan dari yang berasal minyak ayam, dan sabun yang dibuat dengan gelombang ultrasonik lebih transparan dari pada yang dibuat dengan pemanasan. Karakter sabun transparan dari minyak kelapa dengan ultrasonik memiliki kadar air sebesar 22,02%, fraksi tak tersabunkan sebesar 1,01%, bagian tak larut dalam alkohol sebesar 1,79%, alkali bebas sebesar 0,04%, pH 9,35, karakter ini sesuai dengan SNI sabun kecuali kadar airnya. Sabun dari minyak ayam memiliki kadar air 23,26%, fraksi tak tersabunkan sebesar 5,57%, bagian tak larut dalam alkohol sebesar 4,69%, alkali bebas sebesar 0,12%, pH 9,60, dan karakter ini kurang sesuai dengan SNI sabun. Sabun yang dihasilkan dengan metode ultrasonik dengan bahan minyak kelapa memiliki karakter yang paling baik dan memiliki kesesuaian paling banyak dengan SNI sabun padat.

Transparent soap is synthesized from vegetable oils with alkaline bases through the saponification reaction with the addition of a transparent agent. The different material characteristics of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera) and chicken oil (Gallus domesticus) have the potential to produce unique transparent soap. Ultrasonic wave cavitation homogenizes the mixture and accelerates the reaction rate. The purpose of this research is to synthesize transparent soap from coconut oil and chicken oil and compared the soap produced using ultrasonic waves and with soap from the heating method. This experimental laboratory research was carried out with the stages of preparation and characterization of coconut oil and chicken oil, followed by saponification of coconut oil and chicken oil accompanied by ultrasonic waves. Characterization of the synthesized transparent soap. The results in this study indicate that soaps made from coconut oil are more transparent than those made from chicken oil, and soaps made with ultrasonic waves are more transparent than those made by normal heating. The ultrasonic transparent soap character of coconut oil has a moisture content of 22.02%, the non-saponified fraction 1.01%, insoluble part of alcohol by 1.79%, free alkaline by 0.04%, pH 9.35, and this is in accordance with SNI for soap except for its water content. Meanwhile, ultrasonic soap from chicken oil has a moisture content of 23.26%, non-saponified fraction 5.57%, the insoluble portion of alcohol was 4.69%, free alkaline 0.12%, pH 9.60, this is not in accordance with SNI soap. The soap produced by the ultrasonic method with coconut oil has the best character and has the most compatibility with SNI for solid soap.


Keywords


chicken oil; coconut oil; saponification; transparent soap; ultrasonic waves

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33795/jtkl.v5i1.175

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Copyright (c) 2021 Aman Santoso, Rohman Fantusi, Siti Marfu’ah, Sumari Sumari

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.