Biodegradable Foam dari Pati Sagu Terasitilasi dengan Penambahan Blowing Agent NaHCO3

Nanik Hendrawati, Agung Ari Wibowo, Rosita Dwi Chrisnandari

Abstract


Biodegradable foam berbahan dasar pati  merupakan kemasan alternatif pengganti Styrofoam. Namun foam berbahan pati mempunyai sifat rapuh, sensitive terhadap air dan membutuhkan tambahan perlakuan untuk meningkatan kekuatan, fleksibilitas dan ketahanan terhadap air untuk bisa diaplikasikan secara komersial.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan NaHCO3 dan asam sitrat pada pembuatan biodegradable foam dari pati sagu alami dan terasetilasi. Proses modifikasi dilakukan dengan cara asetilasi yang bertujuan meningkatkan kemampuan termoplastis dan sifat hidrofobik. Proses pembuatan biodegradable foam menggunakan metode baking process. Variabel yang digunakan yaitu konsentrasi blowing agent dengan perbandingan NaHCO3 dan asam sitrat (1,3:1). Variabel yang digunakan mulai 0; 10; 12; 15; s/d 18 % w/w dari pati sagu. Hasil pengujian biodegradable foam dari pati sagu terasetilasi didapatkan nilai water absorbtion, kuat tarik, dan densitas lebih rendah dan sebaliknya pada uji biodegradability mempunyai nilai yang lebih tinggi dari pati sagu alami. Analisa SEM dilakukan pada biodegradable foam dengan penambahan blowing agent sebesar 12%, didapatkan bentuk morfologi closed cell dengan rata-rata ukuran partikel sebesar 32,02 μm pada biodegradable foam dari pati sagu alami dan 39,34 μm pada biodegradable foam dari pati sagu terasetilasi. Analisa FT-IR pada pati terasetilasi menghasilkan gugus C=O karbonil dengan bilangan gelombang sebesar 1650 cm-1

Biodegradable foam  based on starch is an alternative packaging for styrofoam.  However foams made from starch are brittle, sensitive to water and require further treatments to improve their strength, flexibility, and water resistance for commercial applications.  The objective of this research to determine the effect of NaHCO3 and citric acid  addition to produce biodegradable foam from natural and acetylated sago starch. The modification process is carried out by acetylation,  the aim of modification to improve thermoplastic capabilities and hydrophobic properties. Biodegradable foam production is carried out by using the baking process method. The variables used were the concentration of blowing agent with  a ratio of NaHCO3 and citric acid (1.3: 1).  The various concentration were used  0; 10; 12; 15;  18% w / w of sago starch.  The results showed that biodegradable foam based acetylated sago starch have lower of water absorption , tensile strength,   density ,    however have  higher biodegradability value than natural sago starch. SEM analysis was carried out on biodegradable foam with the addition of blowing agent by 12%, obtained closed cell morphology with an average particle size of 32.02 μm on biodegradable foam from native sago starch and 39.34 μm in biodegradable foam from acetylated sago starch. The FT-IR analysis of the acetylated starch produced a group C = O carbonyl with a wave number of 1650 cm-1.


Keywords


biodegradable foam; acetylated sago starch; acetic acid; sodium bicarbonate; citric acid; blowing agent

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33795/jtkl.v4i2.168

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