Capturing CO2 from Biogas by MEA (Monoethanolamine) using Packed Bed Scrubber

Iqbal Nur Daiyan, Leila Kalsum, Yohandri Bow

Abstract


Biogas adalah salah satu sumber energi terbarukan yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pengganti energi fosil. Biogas sebagian besar mengandung metan (CH4) dan karbon dioksida (CO2). Kandungan CO2 pada biogas mengurangi efisiensi pada proses pembakaran dan dapat menyebabkan korosi pada komponen-komponen logam yang kontak langsung dengan biogas. Pemurnian biogas dengan absorpsi merupakan suatu cara untuk menurunkan kadar CO2 yang terkandung, dan meningkatkan kandungan CH4 pada biogas sehingga biogas yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar. Penelitian ini ditujukkan untuk mempelajari pengaruh konsentrasi monoethanolamine (MEA) dan laju alir absorben terhadap penurunan kadar CO2 yang terkandung dalam biogas. Proses absorpsi CO2 dilakukan pada scrubber tipe spray tower, scrubber yang digunakan pada penelitian ini berbahan akrilik dengan diameter 64 mm, panjang scrubber 750 mm, tinggi packing pada scrubber 500 mm dan dengan kapasitas 1.5 m3. Laju alir biogas yang digunakan 26 L/menit dengan variasi laju alir larutan MEA sebesar 0,5, 1 dan 1,5 L/menit dan variasi konsentrasi larutan MEA sebesar 1, 3, 5, dan 7M. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada laju alir larutan MEA 1,5 L/menit dengan konsentrasi larutan MEA 7M dapat menurunkan CO2 dari 8,53% menjadi 0,10%, dan dapat meningkatkan kandungan metana (CH4) dari 69,24% menjadi 81,20%.

Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as a substitute for fossil energy. Biogas mostly contains methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The content CO2 in biogas reduces the efficiency of the combustion process and cause corrosion in metal components when direct contact with biogas. Biogas purification using absorption method can reduce levels of CO2 contained and increase levels of CH4  then the biogas produced can be used as fuel. This research study the effect of monoethanolamine (MEA) concentration and absorbent flow rate on the reduction of CO2 contained in biogas. CO2 absorption process is carried out by a spray tower type scrubber. It consisted of an acrylic absorption column (64 mm in diameter, 750 mm in height, 500 mm in packing height and 1.5 m3 in capacity). Biogas flow rate used is 26 L/min with variation of the flow rate of MEA 0.5, 1, and 1,5 L/min and concentration of MEA solution 1, 3, 5, and 7M. The results showed that the flow rate of MEA 1.5 L/min with a concentration of 7M MEA solution can reduce CO2 from 8.53% to 0.10% and can increase the methane (CH4) load from 69.24% to 81.20%.


Keywords


absorption; biogas; biogas purification; MEA; packed bed scrubber

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33795/jtkl.v4i2.157

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