Pengaruh Daya dan Waktu Terhadap Yield Hasil Ekstraksi Minyak Daun Spearmint Menggunakan Metode Microwave Assisted Extraction

Fitria Yulistiani, Rizka Khairiyyah Azzahra, Yulinda Alhay Nurhafshah

Abstract


Salah satu jenis tanaman mint yang memiliki kandungan minyak atsiri adalah jenis spearmint dengan kandungan carvone sebanyak 60 – 70%. Kandungan tersebut menyebabkan minyak atsiri daun mint memiliki sifat antioksidan, antifungal, dan antibakteri. Proses pengambilan minyak atsiri dengan metode tradisional seperti distilasi uap membutuhkan waktu dan energi yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan metode Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh daya microwave (100, 180, dan 300 Watt) dan waktu ekstraksi (5, 10, 15 dan 20 menit) menggunakan metode MAE terhadap yield minyak daun mint. Selain itu, dilakukan karakterisasi sifat fisik yang ditentukan dari warna, indeks bias, densitas, dan komponen penyusun minyak daun mint. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daya dan waktu mempengaruhi yield yang dihasilkan. Variasi daya dan waktu terbaik dari hasil penelitian (daya 180 Watt dan waktu 15 menit) menghasilkan yield sebesar 5,17%. Minyak mint yang dihasilkan memiliki warna kuning muda, indeks bias 1,362, dan densitas sebesar 0,8758 gram/mL. Hasil analisis dengan Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry (GC-MS) menunjukkan bahwa komponen terbesar penyusun produk minyak mint hasil penelitian ini adalah carvone sebanyak 71%.

Spearmint is one type of mint that contains essential oil with carvone (60-70%) as its main component. That component causes mint’s essential oil has antioxidant, antifungal and antibacteria properties. The traditional method to produce essential oil like steam distillation has long and energy consuming processes. The aims of this research were to investigate the influence of microwave power level (100, 180 and 300 Watt) and the extraction time (5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes) used Microwave Assisted Extraction to mint oil’s yield. Furthermore, characterization determined by oil’s colour, refractive index and density. The analysis of chemical component of mint oil was done using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The power level of microwave and extraction time influence to mint oil’s yield is proven in this research. The highest yield (5.17%) is generated at best variation of power and extraction time from the research are at 180 Watt and 15 minutes extraction time. The colour of mint oil is light yellow, refractive index value is 1.362 and density is 0.8758 gram/mL. The result of GC-MS showed that the major component of mint oil is 71% carvone.


Keywords


spearmint; carvone; microwave assisted extraction

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33795/jtkl.v4i1.127

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