Pengaruh Iradiasi Gamma pada Konversi Biomassa Lignoselulosa Sabut Kelapa Menjadi Bioetanol

Harum Azizah Darojati, Sugili Putra, Fahril Putera Zulprasetya

Abstract


Sabut kelapa adalah salah satu limbah lignoselulosa yang dapat dikonversikan menjadi bioetanol. Konversi bioetanol pada penelitian ini dilakukan melalui beberapa tahapan yaitu proses pre-treatment, proses Saccharification and Simultaneous Fermentation (SSF), dan proses pemurnian. Proses pre-treatment sebagai proses pemecahan ikatan lignoselulosa menjadi poin utama dalam proses konversi biomassa lignoselulosa. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh iradiasi gamma terhadap pemecahan ikatan lignoselulosa pada proses pre-treatment tersebut. Proses iradiasi gamma divariasikan pada dosis sebesar 0 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy, 200 kGy, 250 kGy dan dilanjutkan pre-treatment secara kimia menggunakan NaOH 4%. Kemudian dilanjutkan proses pemurnian setelah proses SSF selama 72 jam. Kadar bioetanol yang diperoleh setelah proses pemurnian diukur menggunakan metode refraktometri dan piknometri. Pada penelitian ini diperoleh kadar bioetanol tertinggi pada dosis iradiasi gamma 200 kGy, yaitu 35,15% untuk metode refraktometri, dan 36,77% untuk metode piknometri. Hasil tersebut jauh lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan kadar bioetanol tanpa iradiasi gamma yaitu 2,45% untuk metode refraktometri, dan 6,92% untuk metode piknometri. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa metode pre-treatment dengan iradiasi gamma dapat menghasilkan kadar bioetanol yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan tanpa menggunakan iradiasi gamma.

Coconut husk is one of lignocellulosic wastes that can be converted into bioethanol. Bioethanol conversion in this study was carried out through several stages, namely the pre-treatment process, the Saccharification and Simultaneous Fermentation (SSF) process, and the purification process. The pre-treatment process as the process of breaking lignocellulosic bonds becomes the main point in the process of lignocellulosic biomass conversion. This research was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation to breaking lignocellulosic bonds on the pre-treatment process. Gamma irradiation process was varied in doses of 0 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy, 200 kGy, 250 kGy and continued with chemical pre-treatment using 4% NaOH. Then the purification process was continued after the SSF process for 6 days. Bioethanol levels obtained after the purification process were measured using refractometry and picnometry methods. In this study, the highest levels of bioethanol were obtained at a gamma irradiation dose of 200 kGy, namely 34.93% for the refractometry method, and 26.67% for the picnometry method, respectively. These results are much higher when compared to bioethanol levels without gamma irradiation, which is 2.25% for the refractometry method, and 5.49% for the picnometry method, respectively. This study shows that the pre-treatment method with gamma irradiation can produce higher levels of bioethanol than without using gamma irradiation.


Keywords


coconut husk; lignosellulosic; bioethanol; gamma irradiation; SSF

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33795/jtkl.v3i2.121

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