Karakterisasi Biodegradable Foam dari Pati Sagu Termodifikasi dengan Kitosan Sebagai Aditif

Nanik Hendrawati, Ernia Novika Dewi, Sandra Santosa

Abstract


Biodegradable foam merupakan kemasan alternatif pengganti styrofoam yang menggunakan bahan baku utama berupa pati sehingga kemasan tersebut dapat terurai secara alami. Namun, produk biodegradable foam yang dihasilkan masih memiliki karakteristik sifat yang rendah. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan konsentrasi kitosan terhadap karakteristik sifat biodegradable foam yang dihasilkan dari pati sagu alami dan  termodifikasi menggunakan metode hidrolisis asam – alkohol. Jenis asam yang digunakan pada hidrolisis asam adalah HCl. Konsentrasi kitosan yang ditambahkan pada penelitian ini divariasikan mulai dari 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 % w/w dari pati. Pembuatan biodegradable foam dilakukan menggunakan metode baking process yang dimulai dengan percampuran bahan selain pati sagu termodifikasi, dilakukannya pengadukan hingga campuran menjadi homogen dan mengembang, dan dipanggang didalam oven dengan suhu 125ºC. Analisa pada biodegradable foam adalah analisa daya serap air, analisa kemampuan daya urai dan uji tarik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modifikasi asam – alkohol pada pati sagu tidak mempengaruhi gugus fungsi. Sifat mekanis biodegradable foam yang terbaik pada penelitian ini diperoleh menggunakan pati sagu termodifikasi HCl dan penambahan kitosan sebesar 20% w/w yang memiliki daya serap 4,95 %, densitas sebesar 1.2 g/m3 kemampuan degradasi sebesar 25.12 % dan kekuatan tarik sebesar 1,27 Mpa.

Biodegradable foam is an alternative packaging for styrofoam which uses the main raw material in the form of starch so that the packaging can be decomposed naturally. However, the biodegradable foam products produced still have low characteristics. This research is conducted to determine the effect of the addition of chitosan concentration on the characteristics of biodegradable foam properties produced from  natural sago and modified sago starch using acid-alcohol hydrolysis method. The type of acid used in acid hydrolysis is HCl. The concentrations of chitosan added in this study are varied from 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30% w / w of starch. Biodegradable foam production is carried out by using the baking process method which begins with the mixing of ingredients other than modified sago starch, stirring until the mixture becomes homogeneous and expands, and baked in an oven at 125ºC. The caracterisation of biodegradable foam are water absorption analysis, biodegradability analysis, and tensile test. The results show that modification of acid-alcohol on sago starch do not affect the functional group. The best mechanical properties of biodegradable foam in this research are obtained by using HCl-modified sago starch and addition of chitosan by 20% w / w which have an absorption capacity of 4.95%, density of 0.6 g / m3, degradation ability of 25.12% and tensile strength of 1.27 MPa.


Keywords


biodegradable foam; acid modified sago starch; chitosan; HCl

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33795/jtkl.v3i1.100

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